It took me a while to figure out how to setup postgis on a gitlab-ci build, and could not find anything on the docs, so here is a brief explanation of what I did:

First of all, I used mdillon/postgis as a base image for the service, to avoid having to install postgis on the postgres:9.4 base image over and over.

Using custom docker images as services is explained on the Using Docker Images page of the official guide.

But in short, all I had to do is make a few following changes to .gitlab-ci.yml:

services:
  # Instead of postgres:9.4 -- this is going to pull pg9.4 + postgis2.2
  - mdillon/postgis:9.4

variables:
  # These are used by the base image to setup the first database
  POSTGRES_DB: test_myapp
  POSTGRES_USER: testuser
  POSTGRES_PASSWORD: ""

  # This is going to be used by the application
  DATABASE_URL: "postgres://testuser:@mdillon__postgis/test_myapp"

Just be aware that the hostname for the container is going to be built from the image name, stripping the version number, and replacing any slash / with double-underscore __.

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